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While previous work has portrayed authoritarian regimes as characterized by mass apathy and political demobilization, we show that this is only partially true today. We argue that autocrats mobilize their supporters selectively as a strategic response to political threats. Rallies increase collective action costs for rivaling elites, opposition movements and bystanders because they signal regime strength deterrence and curb mobilization efforts against the regime repression.

Nevertheless, the mobilization of supporters is costly, as autocrats have only imperfect information about current levels of support, rallies require organizational capacity and clashes between supporters and opponents can get out of control.

Drawing on the first global data set with information about pro-government rally events in all authoritarian regimes from to , our quantitative analysis reveals systematic patterns in the occurrence of rallies in line with our theoretical framework. We find systematic increases in pro-government mobilization during episodes of large domestic and regional opposition mobilization, high coup risk and prior to elections. But fragmented aid can be beneficial: Diversity on the donor side provides choice to the local actors involved in the process of democratization.

In contrast, a highly-concentrated donor community can lead to the imposition of an institutional blueprint, designed in advance and not adapted to the needs of the recipient society.

Public Deliberation and Political Contention

An instrumental variable analysis with panel data for countries from to , explicit tests of the causal mechanism, and anecdotal evidence from Ghana provide strong support for the benefits of diverse democracy aid. Handbuch Methoden der Politikwissenschaft , ed. Wagemann, M.

Siewert und A. This chapter examines civil rights contention in Northern Ireland between and Changing perceptions of political legitimacy explain the dynamics of contention more than a preexisting bifurcated structure of political opportunity.

Patterns of Political Contention

The Unionist regime in Northern Ireland suffered a double legitimacy crisis, leaving authorities susceptible to challenges emanating from both minority groups and dominant groups. This dual crisis stemmed from strong ethnonationalist identities and ideologies as well as widespread and contradictory discourses on democracy. The analysis highlights the interplay between regime type and legitimacy in shaping the forms, dynamics, and trajectories of contention as well as the greater challenges that ethnic democracies face in responding to minority insurgency compared with other regimes.

Double Legitimacy Crises and Dynamics of Contention in Ethnic Democracies

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