And he himself had said, "There will yet come a day when my children will come and avenge my blood. Tens of thousands were killed in total.
Also different groups of Christians under multiple leaders, from Christian Monks to Christian Hermits, overwhelmed Jews in Prague, Ratisbon, Regensburg, and other places, after attempting forced conversions of the Jews to Christianity. There were large-scale murders of Jews in Germany at the time of the first Crusade and in England, at the time of the third Crusade, on the accession of Richard Coeur de Lion. York, where the first Christian emperor had begun his reign, was the scene of one of the most appalling mass-atrocities against Jews.
The Jews, before the Crusades, had almost a monopoly of the trade in Eastern goods throughout Europe; after the Crusades, as a result of the persecution of Jews, this trade was largely in Christian hands. That Muslims were more tolerant towards Jews than Christians were is evidenced by the Jews' reaction to the Christian armies that were murdering them en route to the holy lands.
They allied with the Muslims. Although Robert Spencer is intensely critical of Islam in his realistic book " The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam " , he still witnesses that Jews found solace in Muslim lands from the marauding Christians:. Some groups of Crusaders allowed themselves to be diverted from the mission Pope Urban had given them. Stirred up by anti-Semitic preachers, one contingent of men who were making their way East for the First Crusade instead turned to terrorize Jews in Europe, massacring many.
Fifty years later, another group in the Rhineland, bound for the Second Crusade, began massacring Jews again. Some Christians were horrified and ashamed by the actions of their comrades, and some of their written complaints survive. But the overwhelming vast majority of Christian texts and rhetoric were violently anti-Jew. The hatred was very specifically anti-Jew and not merely anti-pagan. It wasn't a blanket hatred as with "pagans" in general, but a directed hatred of the Jews in particular. After the taking over of Jerusalem from the Muslims by the Christian armies, the Muslims hoped to reclaim their territory but they weren't the only ones who wanted to see the Christian aggressors removed:.
For generations, apart for some years of madness under Caliph al-Hakim, the Jews of the land and the city had, on the whole, been treated with tolerance by the Muslim rulers of Palestine. Yet what had the Christians done? Among the first monstrous acts of their presence in Jerusalem they had shut Jews in a synagogue and burnt them alive.
The Jews reminisced over the temperate Muslim government, the safety, stability and tolerance of Muslim rule. It had all been replaced by Christian war, blood, danger, instability and fierce anti-semitism. These relatively peaceful Christian groups were all oppressed by the new Christians proclaiming Latin patriarchy. The Catholics destroyed all peace in the whole Middle East. The more pagan Christians, peaceful and tolerant, were shocked at how low and barbaric Western Christianity had become.
In England the Jews' situation was unique. The populace were convinced, coerced and led into Christianity by varied ingenious schemes, and all other religious beliefs were purged. Jews were introduced to England only in the 11th century, but by then England was already Christian. The thirteenth century saw continuing Papal legislation limiting the rights of Jews, cross-marriage and even cross-contact between Jews and Christians were enforced, with Jews living in walled-off areas.
The Catholic Church led the world in making new, innovative ways at dehumanizing the Jews, removing every right possible. The springtime of Christian usury and the pillaging, burning and looting of Jewish property" led eventually to them becoming financially useless and being expelled by the Christian rulers.
In England, France and Germany Jews were expelled as Christian commerce finally caught up with historical Jewish experience of trade which they'd gained before Christianity shattered their communities. In Spain , although "running as a common thread through all the killings, in Andalucia, in the rest of Castile, in Aragon, and especially in the Balearic Islands, was a sense of revulsion against all those who were not Christian ", it was the Jews in particular who suffered from the waves of attacks such as those that begun in Seville in June ; the Moors were harassed less severely Martin Luther fathered the Protestant reformation with the publication of his 95 theses in He was also one of the most famous Christian anti-Semitical writers during this time, and in listed seven horrible, unjust and inhuman ways in which Jews should be treated, effectively stripping them of most their rights within what was to be Protestant territories.
Martin Gardner, the mathematician and skeptic, traces the history of the abuse of scientific ideas, and traces the history of anti-semitism through to its Christian roots. His solution of the German 'Jewish problem' was a simple one. Drive them out of Germany. Either deport them, or put them into slave labour, Martin Luther argued. He also suggested 'that their synagogues or schools be set on fire The impact of Martin Luther's anti-Jewish writings, the persistence of anti-Jewish ideas in Christian theology and the efforts of the Lutheran Church to fight the scourge of anti-Semitism and racism are explored in the new issue of [our] Interfaith Focus.
Indeed, most of the new sects were as intolerant as the old ones. In Spain ,. Between and November , no effort was being sparred by the Inquisition including repeated bouts of torture to prove that ten men had kidnapped a child from the village of La Guardia near Toledo, crucified him, then cut out his heart and drunk his blood.
Despite the fact that no child was ever found to be missing from the village, the accused were eventually found guilty and burned alive. Shortly after , masses of Jews were expelled from Spain , but, that was far from the end of the story. The majority of the activity of the Spanish Inquisition was aimed at "crypto-Jews", i.
Superstition and paranoia was rife; one of the accusations against Jews that was frequently heard was that they practised magic because, many people believed, Hebrew was an especially potent language of magic. For the inquisitors the possession of Jewish texts was a sure sign that conversos were secretly practising Judaism, and so a ruthless campaign of rooting out and burning such books was instituted. In many thousands of Hebrew works were destroyed in an orgy of book burning across the Italian states.
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Fifteen years later in Venice, a major center of Jewish publishing, the authorities instituted another round-up and burned thousands more copies of the Talmud and other Jewish texts. The campaign against Jewish books was not only about the heresy of converted Jews secretly practising Judaism, but also about their perceived and real magical activities. For many Christians as well as Jews, Hebrew words were in themselves thought magical.
In " The Ascendancy of Europe " by M S Anderson 31 the author mentions that throughout the 19th century, anti-semitism was propagated as much by Catholics as by any other political or radical idealist.
Christian Persecution of Jews over the Centuries — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
In its view, which dated back to St. Augustine in the fifth century, Jews should remain degraded until they renounced their anachronistic religion and embraced the saving truth of Christianity. The Jews immured since in the ghetto of Rome, which was ruled by the popes [ After and until [the s] papal pronouncements regarding Jews normally assumed that their proper status was ghetto subjugation and restrictions.
The Vatican daily L'Osservature Romano in "glorified in antisemitism. Good antisemitism, wrote a typical Catholic journalist, is "nothing other than Christianity, completed and perfected in Catholicism". Schweitzer From the very beginning the Church Fathers were vehemently anti-Jewish. He speaks to the Jewish audiences about 'your Law' as if it were not the same Law which he acknowledges and lives by.
And he stretched it out: and his hand was restored whole as the other.
History, religion, and antisemitism
And he answered him and said, Thou sayest it. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man! Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him: for I find no fault in him. Reading this story in the Gospel of John, one might even get the impression that the executioners in question were Jews, although the only form of execution used by the Jews was stoning; crucifixion, the Roman form of carrying out a death sentence, filled them with horror'.
The Gospels are adamant in their condemnation of 'the Jews' How displeasing they are to God! How hostile they are to everyone! In this way they have brought to completion all the sins they have always committed". Pauline Christianity always blamed the Jews for the persecution of their Messiah. The Romans crucified a large number of people, but the Italians were not blamed as ancestors of the Romans but the Jews as ancestors of the Rabbis with whom Jesus argued.
Because of the contents of the New Testament, Christian enthusiasts have consistently produced violently anti-Semitic propaganda, which have permeated into society in general even in today's enlightened world, all in God's name, according to Christian scripture. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it. And if I say the truth, why do ye not believe me?
The Jews are said to have failed to attain righteousness and stumbled through unbelief Rom. Because they sought it not by faith, but as it were by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumblingstone; 33 As it is written, Behold, I lay in Sion a stumblingstone and rock of offence: and whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.
They are ignorant of God's will Rom. Straying from the path of righteousness, they have sinned through blindness and stubbornness Rom. Aside from the gospels and Pauline texts considered above, the general tone of much of the New Testament is one of intolerance for those who do not accept Jesus as saviour. Not exactly a tolerant endorsement of the likes of Moses, Abraham, and other Jewish heroes of the Old Testament!
And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth. So 1 John 5 makes it clear that Jews for example do not love God because they don't accept Jesus, and, also, if you don't believe in Jesus, you can't carry out God's commandments.
It is not about your behaviour, about whether you love God as much as you can, about whether you are kind to others: it is all about whether or not you believe that the creator of the universe, and untold billions of planets, happened to choose to have his only son here on Earth. This kind of blank-and-white thinking about them-and-us prepared Christianity for its year spate of heresy-hunting and intolerance of even the slightest divergences of belief.