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This school of thought saw the original design of old buildings as correct in and of themselves.

Structural and Surveying

Two of the main proponents of preservation and conservation in the 19th century were art critic John Ruskin and artist William Morris. Restoration was the conservationist school of thought that believed historic buildings could be improved, and sometimes even completed, using current day materials, design, and techniques. In this way it is very similar to the Modernist architectural theory, except it does not advocate the destruction of ancient structures.

Victorian restoration of medieval churches was widespread in England and elsewhere, with results that were deplored at the time by William Morris and are now widely regretted.

Architectural conservation

The Department of the Interior of the United States defined the following treatment approaches to architectural conservation:. Other nations recognize some or all of these as potential treatments for historic structures. Canada recognizes preservation, rehabilitation, and restoration. The Burra Charter , for Australia, identifies preservation, restoration, and reconstruction.

Architectural conservation

The earliest building materials used by ancient peoples, such as wood and mud, were organic. Unfortunately, the organic materials used were also very susceptible to the two most significant impediments to preservation and conservation: the elements and life both human and animal. Ancient buildings such as the Egyptian pyramids, the Roman Colosseum, and the Parthenon face common preservation issues.

The most prominent factors affecting these structures are the environment, pollution, and tourism. As the Earth's climate patterns change, so too do the environmental conditions governing these buildings. For example, the Colosseum has already faced lightning, fire, and earthquakes.

The salt crystals further contribute to the black effect that man-made pollution has on these buildings. The third factor affecting ancient building conservation is tourism. While tourism provides both economical and cultural benefits, it can also be destructive. The Egyptian tomb of Seti the 1st is currently off limits to the public due to the deterioration that has been caused by tourists. The first step in any building conservation project is a sensitive assessment of its history and merits.

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As noted architect Donald Insall states, "Every building has its own biography. A knowledge of the whole life of a building brings an essential understanding of its features and its problems.

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Once the assessment is complete, the next step is a thorough measured survey with a tape, rod and level. Modern measuring techniques, such as photogrammetry the use of aerial photographs to make maps and surveys and stereophotogrammetry, are also used today to increase accuracy. Once the measurements are complete, there is an analysis of the structural stability of the building and its living pattern of movement.

Problem diagnosis will be given ample consideration, and the study-unit will include lectures on the diagnosis and monitoring of cracks, in historic buildings. The nature and diagnosis of geo-technical problems, which can affect a historic structure, will also form an integral part of the study-unit. Ample use of local case-studies will be made to illustrate the various mechanisms of damage in historic masonry and concrete structures and the relative remedial interventions.

Study-unit Aims: The aim of this study-unit is to first of all expose students to the various structural degradation and geo-technical problems faced by historic masonry and concrete structures, particularly in the local context. Secondly, the study-unit aims to introduce students to the different types of interventions, on the fabric, on the structure, and on the sub-structure, including stone replacement, stone patch repairs, concrete repair, structural ties, under-pinning, etc.

It combines a technical manual with details , a text for practising engineers, and guidance through case studies, with good examples of repairs, strengthening, additions, and interventions, and with advice on the specialist literature. The book introduces the philosophy of structural interventions within the range of conservation theories and discusses current practice and the regulatory frameworks of various European countries. It then outlines the main types of strengthening repairs and interventions in terms of building types and the structural nature of the main elements to be strengthened linear structures, frames, plates and shells. Significant case studies are presented of historic mills, stone block buildings, neoclassical houses, historic reinforced concrete structures, and vaulting types.

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Post Review. This volume gathers the few essays written by the quirky Austrian architect Loos d. The essays