Blog Urban Brand-Utility: A projected future for brand communications as a regenerative force in the global urban fabric July 11, Designing Futures From the Inside March 30, Exploring Asymmetry to Detect Disruption January 14, January 14, Recent Essays Critical Activism March 30, 0. How the Future Happens March 30, Storytelling Shapes the Future March 30, I Design Worlds March 30, An analysis of data from five Northern European countries in the Interphone study showed an increased risk of acoustic neuroma only in those who had used a cell phone for 10 or more years 8.
In subsequent analyses of Interphone data, investigators addressed issues of risk according to specific location of the tumor and estimated exposures. One analysis of data from seven of the countries in the Interphone study found no relationship between brain tumor location and regions of the brain that were exposed to the highest level of radiofrequency radiation from cell phones 9.
However, another study, using data from five of the countries, reported suggestions of an increased risk of glioma and, to a lesser extent, of meningioma developing in areas of the brain experiencing the highest exposure How the study was done: This cohort study, conducted in Denmark, linked billing information from more than , cell phone subscribers with brain tumor incidence data from the Danish Cancer Registry.
What the study showed: No association was observed between cell phone use and the incidence of glioma, meningioma, or acoustic neuroma, even among people who had been cell phone subscribers for 13 or more years 11 — How the study was done: This prospective cohort study conducted in the United Kingdom used data obtained from questionnaires that were completed by study participants.
What the study showed: Self-reported cell phone use was not associated with an increased risk of glioma, meningioma, or non-central nervous system tumors. Although the original published findings reported an association with an increased risk of acoustic neuroma 14 , this association disappeared after additional years of follow-up of the cohort In addition to these three large studies, other, smaller epidemiologic studies have looked for associations between cell phone use and cancer.
These include:. Investigators have also conducted analyses of incidence trends to determine whether the incidence of brain or other cancers has changed during the time that cell phone use increased dramatically.
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In , two small studies were published that examined brain glucose metabolism in people after they had used cell phones. The results were inconsistent; whereas one study showed increased glucose metabolism in the region of the brain close to the antenna compared with tissues on the opposite side of the brain 29 , the other study 30 found reduced glucose metabolism on the side of the brain where the phone was used.
The authors of these studies noted that the results were preliminary and that possible health outcomes from changes in glucose metabolism in humans were unknown. Such inconsistent findings are not uncommon in experimental studies of the biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation in people 4. Some factors that can contribute to inconsistencies across such studies include assumptions used to estimate doses, failure to consider temperature effects, and lack of blinding of investigators to exposure status. Early studies involving laboratory animals showed no evidence that radiofrequency radiation increased cancer risk or enhanced the cancer-causing effects of known chemical carcinogens 32 — Because of inconsistent findings from epidemiologic studies in humans and the lack of clear data from previous experimental studies in animals, in the Food and Drug Administration nominated radiofrequency radiation exposure associated with cell phone exposures for study in animal models by the U.
National Toxicology Program NTP , an interagency program that coordinates toxicology research and testing across the U. This large project was conducted in highly specialized labs that specified and controlled sources of radiation and measured their effects. A research overview of the rodent studies , with links to the peer-review summary, is available on NTP website.
These experimental findings raise new questions as to the potential for radiofrequency radiation to result in cellular changes and offer potential avenues for further laboratory studies.
Cancers in the heart are extremely rare in humans, where the primary outcomes of potential concern with respect to radiofrequency radiation exposure from cell phones are tumors in the brain and central nervous system. Schwann cells of the heart in rodents are similar to the kind of cells in humans that give rise to acoustic neuromas also known as vestibular schwannomas , which some studies have suggested are increased in people who reported the heaviest use of cell phones.
The NTP has stated that they will continue to study this exposure in animal models to further advance our understanding of the biological underpinnings of the effects reported above. Another animal study, in which rats were exposed 7 days per week for 19 hours per day to radiofrequency radiation at 0.
Among the rats with the highest exposure levels, the researchers noted an increase in heart schwannomas in male rats and non-malignant Schwann cell growth in the heart in male and female rats. The gaps in the report from the study raise questions that have not been resolved. A few studies have shown some evidence of statistical association of cell phone use and brain tumor risks in humans, but most studies have found no association.
Reasons for these discrepancies include the following:. A broad range of health effects have been reported with cell phone use.
Neurologic effects are of particular concern in young persons since the brain is the primary exposed organ. However, studies of memory, learning, and cognitive function have generally produced inconsistent results 41 — The most consistent health risk associated with cell phone use is distracted driving and vehicle accidents 45 , The Working Group indicated that, although the human studies were susceptible to bias , the findings could not be dismissed as reflecting bias alone, and that a causal interpretation could not be excluded.
The Working Group noted that any interpretation of the evidence should also consider that the observed associations could reflect chance, bias, or confounding rather than an underlying causal effect. In addition, the Working Group stated that the investigation of risk of cancer of the brain associated with cell phone use poses complex methodologic challenges in the conduct of the research and in the analysis and interpretation of findings. In , the American Cancer Society ACS stated that the IARC classification means that there could be some cancer risk associated with radiofrequency radiation, but the evidence is not strong enough to be considered causal and needs to be investigated further.
Individuals who are concerned about radiofrequency radiation exposure can limit their exposure, including using an ear piece and limiting cell phone use, particularly among children. In , the ACS issued a statement on the draft NTP reports noting that the findings were still inconclusive, and that, so far, a higher cancer risk in people has not been seen, but that people who are concerned should wear an earpiece when using a cell phone. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIEHS states that the weight of the current scientific evidence has not conclusively linked cell phone use with any adverse health problems, but more research is needed.
Food and Drug Administration FDA notes that studies reporting biological changes associated with radiofrequency radiation have failed to be replicated and that the majority of human epidemiologic studies have failed to show a relationship between exposure to radiofrequency radiation from cell phones and health problems. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC states that no scientific evidence definitively answers whether cell phone use causes cancer.
In , the European Commission Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks concluded that, overall, the epidemiologic studies on cell phone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure do not show an increased risk of brain tumors or of other cancers of the head and neck region 2. The Committee also stated that epidemiologic studies do not indicate increased risk for other malignant diseases, including childhood cancer 2. A large prospective cohort study of cell phone use and its possible long-term health effects was launched in Europe in March This study, known as COSMOS , has enrolled approximately , cell phone users aged 18 years or older to date and will follow them for 20 to 30 years 47 , Participants in COSMOS will complete a questionnaire about their health, lifestyle, and current and past cell phone use.
This information will be supplemented with information from health records and cell phone records. The challenge of this ambitious study is to continue following the participants for a range of health effects over many decades. Researchers will need to determine whether participants who leave the study are somehow different from those who remain throughout the follow-up period. Although recall bias is minimized in studies such as COSMOS that link participants to their cell phone records, such studies face other problems.
For example, it is impossible to know who is using the listed cell phone or whether that individual also places calls using other cell phones. To a lesser extent, it is not clear whether multiple users of a single phone, for example family members who may share a device, will be represented on a single phone company account. Additionally, for many long-term cohort studies, participation tends to decline over time. There are theoretical considerations as to why the possible risk should be investigated separately in children.
Their nervous systems are still developing and, therefore, more vulnerable to factors that may cause cancer.voip59.sonar.software/7333.php
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Their heads are smaller than those of adults and consequently have a greater proportional exposure to the field of radiofrequency radiation that is emitted by cell phones. And, children have the potential of accumulating more years of cell phone exposure than adults do. Thus far, the data from studies in children with cancer do not support this theory. The study included children who were diagnosed with brain tumors between and , when their ages ranged from 7 to 19 years.
Researchers did not find an association between cell phone use and brain tumor risk either by time since initiation of use, amount of use, or by the location of the tumor Several studies that will provide more information are under way. Researchers from the Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology in Spain are conducting another international case—control study— Mobi-Kids —that will include young people aged 10—24 years with newly diagnosed brain tumors and healthy young people.
The goal of the study is to learn more about risk factors for childhood brain tumors. Hands-free kits reduce the amount of radiofrequency radiation exposure to the head because the antenna, which is the source of energy, is not placed against the head The FCC provides information about the specific absorption rate SAR of cell phones produced and marketed within the last 1 to 2 years.
The SAR corresponds with the relative amount of radiofrequency radiation absorbed by the head of a cell phone user In the United States, 23, new diagnoses and 17, deaths from brain and other central nervous system cancers are estimated for Brain cancer incidence rates have declined slightly in recent years and mortality death rates have increased slightly There is great variability in survival by brain tumor subtype, and by age at diagnosis.
Overall, the 5-year relative survival for brain cancers diagnosed from through was This is the percentage of people diagnosed with brain cancer who will still be alive 5 years after diagnosis compared with the survival of a person of the same age and sex who does not have cancer.
The risk of developing brain cancer increases with age. From through , there were fewer than 4. Menu Contact Dictionary Search. Understanding Cancer. What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics. Cancer Disparities. Cancer Causes and Prevention. Risk Factors. Cancer Prevention Overview. Cancer Screening Overview. Screening Tests. Diagnosis and Staging. Study in B-flat minor after Op. Study in B minor after Op.
Studies after the Op.